Restorative dentistry is one of the most fundamental disciplines of classic dental medicine that involves treating of the caries caused cavitations and fractured tooth parts.
Today, it has been proven that dental caries remains one of the most common and widespread contemporary diseases. We can define it as a localized pathological process of microbic origin that leads to the demineralization of the solid tooth tissues.
Bacteria that inhabit the solid spaces inside the mouth are organized in biofilm (plaque). The basic ingredient for nutrition of bacteria consists of the remnants of food in the mouth cavity in the form of sugar. When the bacteria digest, as a side effect of their sugar metabolism, acids are released which cause demineralization of the tooth surface. With the progression of the surface demineralization, cavitation («cavity»), also known as dental caries, is formed.
Dental caries can be classified according to different criteria, depending on the thickness of the infected tooth tissue. The most common is the classification of dental caries into superficial caries and deep caries. The progression of dental caries causes different symptoms and it can eventually lead to the infection of the pulp (nerve). The pulp treatment and the root canal treatment are the major concerns of endodontics.
The main aim of restorative dentistry is to diagnose dental caries, remove demineralized and bacteria infected tooth tissue inside the cavitation and to replace the missing tooth tissue with an appropriate material.
In the past, non-aesthetic materials were used to restore the tooth tissue, among which amalgam is, certainly, the most widely known. However, in recent years amalgam is hardly used anymore due to the lack of adhesiveness to tooth structure and because of its grey metallic colour. Materials used today are aesthetic, their colour and transparency faithfully imitate the natural tooth, they have excellent mechanical properties and when implemented correctly, they adhere to the tooth surface in order to form with it a unique whole.
When fillings are made they tend to imitate the tooth surface as much as possible, by shaping pits and fissures in order to facilitate the even distribution of chewing forces, and to restore its functions and aesthetics.
Endodontics is the branch of dentistry dealing with the study and treatment of the space within a tooth, the dental pulp and root canals filled with soft connective tissue containing blood vessels and nerves.
With the penetration of bacteria (caries, deep fillings or dental trauma) into these structures an infection occurs which often causes great pain. Spreading further down the root canals the infection can progress to the bones and manifests itself in the form of granuloma or abscess (swearing).
These cases require endodontic treatment in order to prevent the further spread and progress of the infection which can consequently cause tooth loss.
When the length of the root canal has been estimated with special instruments, apex locators, the cleaning of the endodontic space is performed with a combination of sterilized manual and mechanical instruments. After the treatment, the root canals are filled with biointern materials. Based on the size of a dental crown, an assessment is made whether or not a post should be placed within the root canals.
An endodontically treated tooth is more brittle than a vital tooth and it can bear less load than a vital tooth, but the length of its duration is the same as that of a vital tooth, so it can equally be used as support for a crown or a bridge.
Only in exceptional cases it is impossible to perform a successful endodontic treatment.
Dental prosthetics deals with the replacement of the missing teeth and the supporting tissues. As a branch of dentistry, dental prosthetics can be subdivided into mobile and fixed prosthetics, depending on the possibilities of the removal of appliances from the mouth.
Fixed prosthetic works are affixed to the teeth and cannot be removed from the mouth without being destroyed. Fixed prosthetic works require a detailed treatment plan, according to the distribution of the remaining teeth in the mouth and their periodontal condition. Once a decision has been made to construct a fixed prosthesis, the teeth selected as carriers are whetted. Teeth carriers are reduced in their size in order to make adequate space for the construction of the prosthesis in a dental laboratory. After impression taking, bite registration and the face-bow registration, an individual oral situation is reproduced in a dental laboratory where a fixed prosthesis is made. Once the prosthesis has been tried in the patient’s mouth in the presence of a dentist and a dental technician, and after taking into account the patient’s own opinion, a decision is made on whether or not further corrections are needed. After that, a fixed prosthetic work is definitively affixed in the mouth.
Removable prosthetic works can be removed from the mouth by the patient himself, which enables him to maintain his oral hygiene adequately. Once a treatment plan has been presented to the patient, the impression and the registrations are taken in order to transfer the patient’s individual oral case to the dental laboratory, where a removable dental prosthesis is constructed. During the wax try-in the patient is being explained what a definitive work would look like. At this stage various corrections are possible. When a satisfactory solution has been achieved, a dental technician finalizes the removable prosthetic work which is, after the final try-in, handed to the patient.
Polyclinic Morelato has its own dental laboratory. Dental technicians are important members of our team. Removable prosthetic works and their repair are made at the patients’ earliest convenience.
In addition to having our own new dental laboratory we are extremely proud about our successful long-standing collaboration with Katica Barberić Žužić’s dental laboratory.
In polyclinic Morelato various oral surgical procedures are performed. In order to offer a complete and high quality service to our patients we cooperate with oral and maxillofacial surgeons.
The following surgical procedures are performed in the Polyclinic:
Alveotomy is a common surgical tooth extraction procedure, mostly involving wisdom tooth extraction. During the tooth extraction, a part of the bone in which the tooth is placed and which prevents its classic extraction is also removed.
Apicoectomy is a surgical procedure which involves the removal of the pathological process and a part of the tooth’s root tip of an endodontically treated tooth. With the removal of the tooth’s root tip a part of the root which couldn’t have been filled with bioinert material and therefore caused the spread of the infection and the development of the pathological process is also removed. The aim of this procedure is to achieve a complete closure of the ending part of the root canal.
Frenulectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a frenulum. The upper lip frenulum is mostly removed for the orthodontic reasons, while the tongue frenulum is removed for the functional reasons.
Cystectomy is a procedure of the removal of small jaw cysts.
Sinus-lift is a surgical procedure performed in the rear part of the upper jaw in case of the insufficient bone thickness for the placement of dental implants. The maxillary sinus mocous membrane is reached from the anterior part of the sinus bone wall. After the mocous membrane is slightly lifted, the membranes and an artificial bone are planted. The implants that run through the remaining part of the alveolar ridge vital bone and the restored part of the artificial bone are mostly placed in the course of this procedure.
The augmentation of the ridge is undertaken in case there is bone insufficiency for the placement of an implant in the lower jaw. It is mostly undertaken by autologous chin bone and lower jaw entrance wing transplantations.
The supporting tissue of the tooth, periodontum, includes tooth root cementum, the periodontal ligament that connects the root to the bone, alveolar bone and the gums-gingiva. A branch of dentistry that deals with the study and treatment of the supporting tissue of the tooth is called periodontology.
A healthy periodontum is a firm foundation for every tooth.
Periodontal diseases are caused by bacteria. The risk factors for their occurrence are bad oral hygiene, smoking, uncontrolled diabetes and genetic factors.
Bacteria are accumulated on a tooth surface and they form dental plaque which develops into tartar, a mineralized form of dental plaque. Tartar by itself does not cause periodontal diseases. On its rough surface, which cannot be adequately cleaned, new bacteria accumulate causing infection in the nearby periodontum.
The infection first develops in the surface layers of the periodontum and manifests as gingivitis, the inflammation of the gums-gingiva. Gingivitis is reversible. Once tartar has been professionally removed from the tooth surface and adequate oral hygiene has been maintained it can be reversed. If it is not treated, however, the progression of the infection may lead to the alveolar bone destruction and subsequently to the loss of the periodontal ligament and the gum retreat. Periodontitis can be seen also on the x-ray scans and although the alveoral bone loss cannot be reversed, if treated, the advancement of parodontitis can be effectively stopped.
A periodontal therapy begins with the assessment of periodontal indexes that indicate the advancement of periodontitis. Subsequently, the initial periodontal treatment is carried out. It consists of grating and polishing the root surface in order to remove tartar, clean and smooth out all tooth surfaces, enabling the patient to maintain his or her oral hygiene regularly. If needed, the patient also receives antibiotic treatment. Periodontitis requires regular dental checkups and an active involvement in the maintenance of adequate oral hygiene. Once the initial treatment has been successfully carried out, surgical procedures and the guided periodontal tissue regeneration can be performed.
Other periodontal treatments we offer include also the concealment of non-inflammatory recessions and gingivectomy, i.e. dental crown lengthening procedure.
Each of our dental offices is equipped with digital RVG machines which offer a possibility of almost instantaneous display of image with minimum radiation.
Digital orthopantomography equipment offers a possibility of a high-quality panoramic imaging of the jaw with minimum radiation.
Whit Cone beam CT images we can resolve most complicate cases, using software for picture preparation and simulating surgical procedures.
The equipment and the premises meet all required standards to secure you, and ourselves, the utmost protection.
Implantology is the branch of dentistry closely related to oral and periodontal surgery that gives solutions to all forms of edentulism (toothlessness). Implants can be used to replace one tooth or more teeth, without the filing down of the adjacent teeth.
Additional fixation of complete denture prostheses is also possible by using a smaller number of implants and ankle connectors which connect the implant and the complete denture prosthesis. This is particularly true for the often mobile lower complete dental prostheses.
Elio Morelato, DMD, defended his master thesis dealing with «The Retention of the lower complete denture prosthesis to the implants» in 2010.
Dental implants are self-cutting titanium screws placed in a bearing prepared in the jawbone. They replace the root of a natural tooth. The procedure of implant placement is performed under local anaesthesia and is completely painless.
A prosthetic post that replaces a reduced tooth crown is placed on the dental implant. A dental crown or a bridge is definitely affixed to the post.
The basic requirements for the placement of a dental implant are a sufficient amount of bone in the jaw, which is estimated by an obligatory panoramic imaging of the jaw or a CT scan, absence of any chronic disease and good oral hygiene.
Children are patients whose dental treatment requires extreme patience and an adequate approach. Prevention and the acquisition of regular habits of good oral hygiene as well as regular dental checkups are very important in pediatric dentistry.
Dental polyclinic Morelato boasts a long experience in pediatric dentistry. By approaching them with patience and nice storytelling, we seek the most appropriate and entertaining way to get the children acquainted with dentistry.
Ortodoncija je specijalistička grana dentalne medicine koja se bavi ispravljanjem zubi. Terapija se provodi mobilnim ili fiksnim ortodontskim aparatima.
Mobilni aparati tijekom ortodontske terapije mogu se vaditi iz usta. Najčešće se koriste u terapiji mlađih pacijenata te služe za korekciju odnosa čeljusti i usmjeravanja rasta pojedinog zuba.
Fiksni aparati najučestaliji i najučinkovitiji su način izravnavanja zubi, kod pacijenata različite životne dobi. Pod pojmom fiksnog aparata podrazumijevaju se bravice zalijepljene na zube te povezane žicom koja se tokom terapije mijenja i zube pozicionira u željeni položaj.